# How to Fight a Traffic Ticket with Fire and Brimstone

I know I have written in the past that I don’t believe in disclaimers but this one is important. I am not a lawyer. This guide in no way serves as a substitute for legal advice and I am not responsible for anything that you do with this information. Use your own best judgement. If you don’t feel comfortable going through this process it is hereby recommended that you talk to a lawyer.

Remember this, 95% of tickets aren’t contested. Of those that are, 50% of them are won.

This isn’t meant to be a typical blog post per se, but more like a guide on what you should do throughout the process of dealing with a ticket.

In our example here, this is just a high level overview of what to do during the different parts of the process:

So let’s imagine some random scenario, it’s 1am, you’re driving home through NJ from philly to get home. You’re always in Philly late, you know you shouldn’t be staying out too long, but somehow now matter what you always get tempted into staying there, something something magic of the city. The reason isn’t important. There’s nobody on the road, and you just want to get home, so you’re just driving. Driving quick, and bam, the lights flash, the siren blares, and you’ve pulled over.

### When you get pulled over:

You’re going to want to leave a good impression, but not a memorable one. Just be polite and it will be fine.

• Hands on the wheel, engine off, lights inside the car on.

• Be Polite, don’t be a jerk. When the officer asks you for your license and registration, ask him if it is ok that you reach into glovebox/center console to retrieve it BEFORE you give it to him. Cops are always wary from not knowing if a person is a going to cause a problem or not. This will put him a bit at ease.

• DON’T ADMIT TO ANYTHING. Do not say something stupid like the following: “Why yes sir I was speeding. Thank you for this ticket!” Let him tell you what HE THINKS you did. Make sure to take note of exactly what he says. This information is important.

• DON’T ARGUE WITH THE OFFICER. It is ok to question what happened, but don’t make it into argument. You can always say something like “Really? I’m quite sure I was driving with the flow of traffic” or “My speedometer was reading at the speed limit.” It is best to let him do the talking and ask questions in a vague manner rather than challenge his judgment.

• ASK QUESTIONS. Don’t do this in a suspicious manner. The cop might get a hint that you want to fight the ticket if you get pushy. Act like you are clueless.

• Types of questions to ask:

• How did you catch me? If it was by radar ask what the reading was and if you can see it. Small things like him saying “75 or so” are crucial to your benefit. The less accurate he is, the better chance you have of succeeding. If he says he was pacing you, ask what that means so he describes it to you (appearing clueless).
• How long he was following you and from where. Make sure to take mental notes of all this. Remember, you don’t want the officer to actually remember that much about you, you want to seem like a totally routine traffic stop to him.

• COUNTY SEAT: If at this point he has decides to write you a ticket, ask if you can have it sent to the county seat. The county seat is the main branch in the county of where the ticket is issued. There are two reasons to do this:
• First, the main branch is usually not the officer’s home branch, sometimes it might be pretty far. This means he is less likely to show up in court should he have to go, because it is more work for him to drive there.
• Second, the ticket might get lost in the process. It's not that likely, but whatever you can do to put things in your favor. If he asks why, just tell him that you work near there or something. He cannot refuse this right and if he does take note of it.

• Write everything down! Once everything is settled and you are now on your way again, pull over somewhere and write down or record every detail you can remember. Every detail includes: weather, date, time, traffic conditions, where the sun was at, lane you were in, lane he was in, what the conversation entailed (how fast he said you were going, how he caught you etc.) The more info you have the better your case. Take lots of pictures of the area if you can. Or use google earth photos.

• Delay, delay, delay. Look at the date you are due in court. Call the a couple of days before and get an extension also known as a continuance. You will receive one, and you can always make up an excuse for one. 2 weeks before your next court date try to get another extension. You may or may not get one. I did. The longer time between you and the court date the more time has passed and the less likely the cop will be able to recall you or information about the violation. There are even circumstances where it’s been so long that the officer isn’t even serving in your jurisdiction anymore and the ticket can be dismissed automatically.

• Police Report: get a copy of the police report and go through it thoroughly. Make sure that every blank that should be filled out is filled out to the T. I’m not sure if getting a copy prior to court is free or not, but if you get to the point of court, you should be offered a copy then to look over. You may also just get a kickass judge like I did who will offer to look it over for you.

• Trial by Written Declaration: Read the citation and dig into what the rules are in your state for trial by written declaration. A written declaration essentially means you write up your case as opposed to showing up in court. Even if you lose this case, you can go to court in person anyway, which of course is up to you. Information is readily available on the internet about deadlines for this, but usually you have to send a letter postmarked 5 days in advance of your court date stating you want trial by declaration.

• You can find this information online and I suggest you do it well in advance before you send the actual letter. The letter will read something like “I would like trial by written declaration and include the citation number.” Again this buys you more time. What will happen is that the court will process your request and send you the appropriate forms to fill out. It takes a while for them to do this, it took over a month before I got my papers. Some counties might provide the ability to start the process from online. That is up to you. I personally would opt for typing a letter and mailing it. The more time you can buy the better.

#### Once you receive the papers

• Construct your case as precisely as possible. Include all the details you can. Your letter must be revised a few times to prevent contradictions or inaccuracies. Have some of your friends or peers revise it if you like.
• Structure: Make sure the wording is formal and that the events are in order. Start out by describing where you were driving, time of day, weather, how fast you were going etc. Followed by where you were being pulled over, speed, lanes. The conversation and then your reasons why feel the ticket is unjust.
• Diagrams: Include diagrams if you can. Even a hand drawn one. It helps
• Deadline: Send it by the deadline stated on the papers. Time extension is very important.
• Wait
• Results: Results will of course either be in your favor or against. If you lose you usually have the option to have an in person trial, or at this point just deal with the fine. Which of course you won’t becuase that’s why you’re reading this. I know this sounds like a lot of work, but it really only took me an hour or two to type a letter and make a diagram for it. I did a bit of additional research, but most of the information is here for you already. You’ll save hundreds of dollars and points on your driver’s license PLUS having to go and pay for traffic school. It was definitely worth the time.

Now to be clear you could win the case with a trial by declaration, which happens maybe 30% of the time, and that would be the end of it, and nothing more needs to happen.

IF YOU LOSE THE TRIAL BY DECLARATION: It’s time for shit to get real and go to trial in person.

### Court:

• Scheduling the court date: They will set a court date for you. First thing you should do is call the dispatch office where your officer is stationed (written on your ticket) ask for the officer’s schedule (this is considered on the public record and legally must be disclosed). If the officer has 2 or 3 consecutive days off schedule your court date in the middle or just make sure to schedule your court hearing on his day off. Here’s why: typically officers will set up all their court dates consecutively in one day. If you’re the single ticket interrupting his weekend he’s probably not likely to show up to court.

Here’s why: typically officers will set up all their court dates consecutively in one day so they don’t have to make multiple trips. If you’re the single ticket interrupting his weekend he’s probably not likely to show up to court. Also remember, you’ve pushed this court date for quite a while. Many officers won’t bother showing up for what is now almost a 60 day old ticket. If you’d like to go to trial (again, remember nothing is lost by doing this, at worst you end up right where you started having to pay the fine.)

• Coming to court: DRESS NICELY and show up early. DO NOT use your phone or look down at it in court, just sit and relax. A lot of the folks you’ll be sitting with (other alleged offenders) will come in looking just TERRIBLE. If a judge sees that you’re well dressed, calm, respectful and have been sitting in court for a little while patiently observing and paying attention; you will stand out. Most judges and cops really respect people who respect the process. Eventually your name will be called for your case.

• BE RESPECTFUL OF THE JUDGE. I have found that by sitting in the front row, dressing nicely, sitting up straight, crossing one leg and sitting professionally and actually making eye contact with the judge as if you’re paying attention makes a world of difference. Saying “Good morning your honor” and ending every sentence with “your honor” makes a HUGE difference every time.

• Evidence: You should ask for the radar model number, and radar gun certificate. This certificate should include the last time it was calibrated. This must be done daily on every gun used in a police car, and signed off by a superior. In reality most officers do not have this in court or actually do this. Make sure to ask if the officer used Lidar or Radar to gauge your speed. Radar is less accurate so you might be able to get off a ticket if you just say there was a lot of traffic around you, like big trucks, etc.

A note on speed detection tools:

• Confronting your accuser: It is important to point out that when in court the officer is acting as a witness. If he does not show, sometimes they have a proxy cop show up to read his notes on the stand. If either happens, challenge the court based on INDIVIDUAL RECOLLECTION. Any “witness” who will be allowed to be cross referenced is required to be able to specifically remember the event. Ask questions not on the notes and police report. What color is the car? What about the replacement fender? What were you wearing? If you’ve pushed the date out and if he can’t remember, challenge that. You’ve delayed the trial so far back and the officer has definitely forgotten all about this by now, assuming he’s even bothered to show up for a 3 month old random speeding ticket on his day off.

Hopefully at some point in this process your ticket is either dismissed or the judge offers you a plea deal of some sort. Either way it means that this process was definitely worth the time and I’m sure you learned something along the way. Unfortunately you still have to pay court costs, but those are certainly trivial compared to being found guilty of a crime!

### Good luck!

If you can remember all of this and I’m sure you’ll be able to fight your average run of the mill speeding ticket and other offenses.

# Fermat's Last Theorem

note: this blog post is about a pretty much random piece of number theory that had gone unsolved for over 300 years, but I will admit that it’s not that exciting for regular people. Especially this one, where I’m pretty much just stealing a wikipedia article because I found it interesting. It’s my blog I do what I want.

Fermat’s Last Theorem states that no three positive integers $a$, $b$, and $c$ satisfy the equation $a^{n} + b^{n} = c^{n}$ for any integer value of $n$ greater than $2$.

The cases $n = 1$ and $n = 2$ have been known to have infinitely many solutions and fermat specifically pointed that out when he gave us what little information he did.

## The Story

Pierre de Fermat was a prominent french lawyer and mathematician. He used to keep a book of different ideas in math at the time and would scribble in the proofs on the edges of the page.

Fermat’s last theorem has a very interesting story. He was sitting at home alone one day by the fire sipping wine and eating cheese; reading everyone’s favorite math classic novella, The 1670 edition of Diophantus’ Arithmetica. This book contained a lot of the mathematical conjectures and theories that were believed at the time. He was reading this book and proving the conjectures within the margins of the pages!

One of the last theorems in the book was the one above, he had written that it could be proven, but that there wasn’t enough space in the margins of the pages at the time. (a terrible shame) So he never actually wrote down the proof; and unfortunately passwed away before writing it. Pierre de Fermat died aged 57 or 58, on January 12, 1665 in Castres, France. The cause of his death is not known. Three days before his death, he had been carrying out legal business in the local courthouse. He was buried in the Church of St. Dominique in Castres.

## The problem

Now this left us with a pretty difficult problem, all of the other proofs in the book were correct, so we had reason to believe that this theorem was also true, but we had no way to prove it!

This set the math community ablaze.

With the special case $n = 4$ proved by Fermat himself, it suffices to prove the theorem for exponents $n$ that are prime numbers (this reduction is considered trivial to prove, mostly by angry math professors). Over the next two centuries (1637–1839), the conjecture was proved for only the primes $3$, $5$, and $7$, although Sophie Germain innovated and proved an approach that was relevant to an entire class of primes.

Ernst Kummer extended this and proved the theorem for all regular primes, leaving irregular primes to be analyzed individually. Building on Kummer’s work and using sophisticated computer studies (probably a big for loop tbh), other mathematicians were able to extend the proof to cover all prime exponents up to four million, but a proof for all exponents was inaccessible (meaning that it was either impossible, exceedingly difficult, or unachievable with current knowledge).

## The mystery intensifies

Entirely separately, around 1955, Japanese mathematicians Goro Shimura and Yutaka Taniyama suspected a link might exist between elliptic curves and modular forms, two completely different areas of mathematics. Known at the time as the Taniyama–Shimura-Weil conjecture, and (eventually) as the modularity theorem, it stood on its own, with no apparent connection to Fermat’s Last Theorem. It was widely seen as significant and important in its own right, but was (like Fermat’s theorem) widely considered completely inaccessible to proof.

## The last guy that would be tortured by this french troll.

Enter Andrew Wiles, he grew up with a childhood fascination with Fermat’s theorem (not a fun childhood in the opinion of this author). He had a background of working with elliptic curves and related fields, decided to try to prove the Taniyama–Shimura conjecture as a way to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem. In 1993, after six years working in secrecy on the problem, Wiles succeeded in proving enough of the conjecture to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem. Wiles’s paper was massive in size and scope. A flaw was discovered in one part of his original paper during peer review and required a further year and collaboration with a past student, Richard Taylor, to resolve. For his proof, Wiles received the 2016 Abel Prize.

To imagine dedicating your life to solving a problem, spending six years in secrecy only to have an error pointed out when publsihing the solution. When he discovered the missing piece and complete the proof after an additional year must have been incredible.

"I was sitting at my desk examining the Kolyvagin–Flach method. It wasn’t that I believed I could make it work, but I thought that at least I could explain why it didn’t work. Suddenly I had this incredible revelation. I realised that, the Kolyvagin–Flach method wasn’t working, but it was all I needed to make my original Iwasawa theory work from three years earlier. So out of the ashes of Kolyvagin–Flach seemed to rise the true answer to the problem. It was so indescribably beautiful; it was so simple and so elegant. I couldn’t understand how I’d missed it and I just stared at it in disbelief for twenty minutes. Then during the day I walked around the department, and I’d keep coming back to my desk looking to see if it was still there. It was still there. I couldn’t contain myself, I was so excited. It was the most important moment of my working life. Nothing I **ever do again** will mean as much."

• — Andrew Wiles, as quoted by Simon Singh

This is the small but fun story of Fermat’s last theorem, formally proven and published in 1995, 358 years after it was first conceived; due to the dedication of Andrew Wiles.

note: Like I said, I didn’t have much to go on when it came to the second blog post I promised, but here it is. I hope the story behind this fun thing was relatively interesting, I didn’t have the time or the background to go into the proof here, but you can find the linked paper below. (it’s over 100 pages so have fun.)

# The Modern Theory of Knowledge

### What does it mean to know something?

We say all the time that we know things. I know that my friend owns a car, and I know that $2 + 2 = 4$

I should just say now that if you think that question of knowledge is uninteresting the blog post will not get any better for you.

Are those two pieces of information both knowledge?

They are both statements about something that we as people might say that we know, but is there a difference between those two types of knowledge?

Normally during these blog post, we try to take the time to define a bunch of concepts in order to know exactly what we’re dealing with in order to then make some intresting conclusions based oin the consequences of those definitions. The only problem here is that humanity currently doesn’t have a good definition for the word “knowledge”.

## What does it mean to know something?

When we say that we know something, most people have a shared and unspoken understanding of what that really means. This blog post is going to attempt to determine what that sentence really means.

Much earlier people used to regard knowing something as having a true justified belief in that thing. Let’s roll with that for a bit. While we go through this I’ll try to justify how this came to be our definition.

To be more formal:

• $p$ is true
• $S$ believes that $p$
• $S$ is justified in believing that $p$

#### The truth condition

This seems kind of obvious in a way, but most people seem to agree that you can’t know something that’s false. You can’t say “I know $2 + 2 = 5$ because that’s just not true.

Something’s truth does not require that anyone can know or prove that it is true. Not all truths are “established” truths. If you flip a coin and never check how it landed, it may be true that it landed heads, even if nobody has any way to tell. Truth is a matter of how things are, not how they can be shown to be.

So when we say that only true things can be known, we’re not saying anything about how anyone can access the truth.

#### The belief condition

The idea here is that you can only know what you believe.

Although initially it might seem obvious that knowing that p requires believing that p, a few philosophers have argued that knowledge without belief is indeed possible.

Take this example suggested by Colin Radford (1966). Suppose Albert is quizzed on English history. One of the questions is: “When did Queen Elizabeth die?”

Albert doesn’t think he knows, but answers the question correctly. Moreover, he gives correct answers to many other questions to which he didn’t think he knew the answer. Let us focus on Albert’s answer to the question about Elizabeth:

• $E$ : “Elizabeth died in 1603.”

Well this is weird, Albert here is making an assertion about truth, without in fact believing that it’s correct, even though it turned out to be that he was right! Surely Albert doesn’t really know that’s when Queen Elizabeth died.

• Albert does not believe $E$

• Albert knows $E$

Albert’s correct answer is not an expression of knowledge, perhaps because, given his subjective position, he does not have justification for believing $E$; he remembered an answer that happened to be correct. The justification condition is a key component of someone knowing something.

note: you could also argue that albert perhaps does believe $E$ but that feels like a weaker objection to me personally.

#### The justified belief condition

Why must a belief by justified? While we should always be able to justify our beliefs, Albert doens’t have a justification for believing the answer he gives in our previous example. He simply gives one that he remembers that happens to be correct in the end.

In addition, something could be a justified belief at one time and not justified the next. My favorite example of this is Copernicus. He wrote (not the first) a very famous paper about the nature of the earth in the universe. Before that discovery was made, you may have been justified in believing that the earth was the center of the universe, but the NEXT DAY you wouldn’t have been.

This is problematic though, because right now we have lots of theories about light, matter, math, chemistry and science but we can never truly be sure if the things that we currently believe are things that we know because we could potentially continue to discover new things in the future and find that by definition we didn’t know the things we thought we knew before.

Someone could believe they knew that the earth was flat their whole lives and have justification for that belief (check out the flat earth society) and if it was scientifically justifiable than they should be able to say that they knew the earth was flat.

Otherwise we could go our whole lives without ever really being able to “know” anything.

### This is how we’ve ended up at the definition of “Justified True Belief”.

###### Here’s Why that doesn’t work.

Everyone was generally pretty happy with making statements about knowledge being true justified belief until we found that it didn’t cover conjunctive statements

Enter Edmund Gettier, a wonderful philosopher who’s published one of the shortest papers ever (literally two pages). He gives two great examples disproving the idea of knowledge we’ve been building up so far.

We’re going to talk more about the second one because I think it’s more useful and a more powerful example.

###### totally unnecessary backstory

Imagine two people, Smith and Jones, they’re both subpar accountants at an accounting firm in Boston. They’ve worked together at the same firm for a few years. Smith thinks that Jones has ridiculous views about modern architecture but other than that they respect each other.

Let us suppose that Smith has strong evidence for the following:

• $f$: Jones owns a Ford.

Nothing crazy there, you’d definitely be justified in believing that someone owned a car if you saw them using it to drive to work every day for a few years.

To be more formal:

Smith’s evidence might be that Jones has at all times in the past within Smith’s memory owned a car, and always a Ford, and that Jones has just offered Smith a ride while driving a Ford.

Now imagine that Smith has another friend, Brown, (wow look at Mr. Popular over here. TWO FRIENDS.) who likes to travel. Smith doesn’t know anything about where brown might be on any given day.

Let’s say Smith selects three places at random, and constructs the following three propositions :

• $g$: Either Jones owns a Ford, or Brown is in Boston;
• $h$: Either Jones owns a Ford, or Brown is in Barcelona;
• $i$: Either Jones owns a Ford, or Brown is in Brest-Litovsk.

First thing you might notice is that each of these propositions is entailed by $f$ which we talked about before. Smith is therefore completely justified in believing each of these three propositions. Smith, of course, has no idea where Brown is.

#### Now let’s say we find out two new pieces of information.

• Jones does not own a Ford, but is at present driving a rented car.

• Brown happens to be in Barcelona, making $h$ true.

This is an instance in which, proposition $h$ is true, but it doesn’t satisfy our definition of knowledge. This is because the part of the statement that makes it a justified belief is separated from the part of the statement that actually makes it true.

## … shit.

This paper was a huge deal because for a while people thought this problem was pretty much dealt with. But now we’ve got to deal with this kind of a problem, these Gettier cases in which an assertion about the world can be justified by an ultimately false belief that simply happen to be true due to things unknown to those making the assertion.

Now it’s worth saying that Philosophy hasn’t come to an actual consensus on this issue! There are some crazy examples about dogs in a field and organized criminals setting up barn facades but we’re going to talk a little bit about one particular way to deal with the problem which is to add a new condition to the True Justified Belief conditions.

• Safety : In all nearby worlds where $S$ believes that $p$, $p$ is not false.

The notion of safety here is one that describes how similar the state of affairs could be while still having the same result.

In a “nearby” world, Brown might have gone to Costa Rica instead (classic Brown). Our TJSB definition of knowledge enables us to not include this statement as knowledge because in nearby possible worlds Brown could have went anywhere, and $h$ is not going to be true in those nearby possible worlds.

if you’re still reading … thank you.

So this seems to be a pretty close to concrete definition of knowledge that does work for a lot of cases.

There is a refutation worth exploring that comes from Juan Comesaña who published this in 2005.

It’s a little unfair to say the matter is resolved given the vagueness of the “nearby” condition. In Comesaña’s example, the host of a Halloween party enlists Judy to direct guests to the party.

Judy’s instructions are to give everyone directions, but that if she sees Michael, the party will be moved to another location. (The host does not want Michael to find the party.) Suppose she never sees Michael, but some other person decides to wear the same costume that Michael was going to, then his belief on what the directions are, justified and based in Judy’s testimony, about the whereabouts of the party will be true.

Comesaña says they could easily have been false. (Had he merely made a slightly different choice about his costume, he would have been mistaken as Michael and deceived.) Comesaña describes the case as a counterexample to the safety condition on knowledge.

The idea here being that in a nearby world in which this guest wore a similar costume, he could be given a different justified true belief (the directions to the party) but that would not be knowledge because $p$ could in fact be false in a “nearby” world.

However, it is open to a safety theorist to argue that the relevant skeptical scenario, though possible and in some sense nearby, is not near enough in the relevant respect to falsify the safety condition. Such a theorist would, if she wanted the safety condition to deliver clear verdicts, face the task of articulating just what the relevant notion of similarity amounts to.

We’re now pretty much at the modern day, we haven’t achieved perfect consensus but it’s certainly really interesting to contemplate what it means to know something!

## P.S.

On a totally unrelated note there is a fascinating paper even shorter than Gettier’s that I came across while doing research for this post, published by a clinical Psychologist in the Fall of 1974 titled; The unsuccessful self-treatment of “Writer’s Block”

# Is the soul a physical part of you?

### A metaphysical argument about the soul’s relation to the body.

Today we’re going to get into a small discussion about whether the soul is a part of you. Meaning; is your soul something that’s necessarily a physical part of you as a person?

To be more specific, this is an argument that was posed to posit the existence of the concept of “a soul” as an explanation for the phenomenon of human free will.

Note: If you have strong religious views on what the soul is and don’t enjoy questioning them, you may not enjoy reading this post. That being said, this post is not written to convince you of a particular point of view, but simply inform you about an interesting argument about the philosophical debate on the nature of the immaterial soul.

#### Laying the Groundwork

So before we can have this conversation, it may be useful to set a context for it. First, we have to talk about a couple of views about what people are before we can posit an argument in favor of one case or the other.

There are two prevailing views on this issue, there’s the dualist view, that a person is comprised of a body and a soul. Then there’s the physicalist view that a person is just a body.

Both of these views have interesting consequences, and the argument we’re going to discuss comes from the dualist perspective.

We need to define an important concept, the idea that a system can be deterministic. Meaning that if you reproduce an identical system multiple times, that a predictable outcome can be observed that follows specific rules. Most of physics uses determinism to predict how a system will unfold all the time. To quote google:

de·ter·min·ism (noun)

/dəˈtərməˌnizəm/

The doctrine that all events, including human action, are ultimately determined by causes external to the will. Some philosophers have taken determinism to imply that individual human beings have no free will and cannot be held morally responsible for their actions.

Let’s define another concept really quickly.

Free Will: the idea that if I am put into the exact same situation multiple times, I could make a different decision each time. There is nothing necessarily consistent about the actions of a being with free will.

So without further ado, the argument is the following.

#### There are three premises:

• Humans have free will.

• Nothing subject to determinism has free will.

• All purely physical systems are subject to determinism.

#### Conclusion: Therefore, humans are not purely physical systems.

So to explain the concept of free will we appeal to the idea of a soul, something non-physical.

## How should we evaluate this argument?

I think the first question that I asked when I heard this was “What is it about free will that proves that we’re not purely physical objects?”

Why would there be an incompatibility between the idea of having free will and the idea of things being determined?

But we’ll start our analysis with a couple of important questions.

##### Is this argument valid?

The first question we should ask is, “does our argument make sense?” Does this argument’s conclusions truly logically follow?

So I’ll save you some time and tell you that it’s conclusion does follow. Given these particular assumptions, it makes sense.

##### Are our assumptions valid?

Whether you realize it or not, this argument uses some serious assumptions, that we should be more rigorous about defining before we accept this radical conclusion.

premise one: This argument rests on the idea of free will. The idea that if we have free will we can’t just be purely physical systems. I think the strongest objection that someone could give would be that we don’t truly have free will. We might certainly believe we do; but free will isn’t something that can be observed. Perhaps the sense that we could have acted otherwise is an illusion.

premise three: “All purely physical systems are subject to determinism.” The statement asserts we can’t have free will and determinism. 3 is a pretty serious claim about empirical science.

Quantum mechanics as an example is certainly not deterministic. We can observe particles that might be found in one position $60%$ of the time; without knowing_ why_ they behave the way that they do. Determinism is not true at the level of quantum mechanics. This leads me to say that premise three might be false.

I should say that premise two can be challenged as well and I’d encourage you to think about why.

So I’ve told you the argument, I’ve told you what I think, let me know what you think~

### Souls are … weird.

If you found this interesting, you may enjoy viewing the lecture series from Yale; Death (PHIL 176) : link here.

# 3D Printed Weapons; Explained

### The History of 3D Printed Weapons in America

###### The liberator, a 3D printed handgun

What you’re looking at above is an image of one of the very first 3D printed weapons ever designed and distributed for free on the internet. To think that you could go on the internet and mass produce a gun or a rifle in your own home by printing them. This would have been unheard of even in 2012. So what’s really changed in the past couple of years?

There is a lot to understand here; so let’s start with the basics.

What is 3D printing?

3D printing is the ability to use special printers that layer plastics in order to create 3 dimensional objects. This has become a popular phenomenon in the tech community enabling a new and exciting avenue for creativity.

#### Warning: history incoming:

The earliest 3D printing technologies first became visible in the late 1980’s, at which time they were called Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies. This is because the processes were originally conceived as a fast and more cost-effective method for creating prototypes for product development within industry. As an interesting aside, the very first patent application for RP technology was filed by a “Dr Kodama”, in Japan, in May 1980. Later, 3D Systems’ first commercial RP system, the SLA-1, was introduced in 1987 and following rigorous testing the first of these system was sold in 1988. 2007 was the year the shoots started to show through and this embryonic, open source 3D printing movement started to gain visibility.

But it wasn’t until January 2009 that the first commercially available and affordable 3D printer — in kit form and based on the RepRap concept — was offered for sale. This was the BfB RapMan 3D printer. Closely followed by Makerbot Industries in April the same year, the founders of which were heavily involved in the development of RepRap until they departed from the Open Source philosophy.

## How it works…

The most common type of 3D printing is the process called Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), and this technology is the primary method used to makenot just the handful of working 3D printed guns that have been made, but almost all 3D printing.

###### Yoda being 3D printed in layers

The process works by slicing a digital file containing the 3D model into dozens, sometimes hundreds of (usually) 0.1 mm thick layers. The 3D printer will then use robotic precision to replicate each of these individual slices on a printing bed using melted thermoplastics, one layer printed on top of another. The result, hopefully, will be a complete physical copy of the digital file. Depending on the size of the part, the type of material being used and the model of 3D printer, this process can take several hours.

How did 3D weapons come to exist?

Our story begins where most violence happens, Little rock, Arkansas. In the Summer of 2012 Ben Denio and Cody Wilson sought to create a political and legal vehicle for demonstrating and promoting the subversive potential of publicly-available 3D Printing technologies. They called this venture “Defense Distributed”. On July 27th, 2012 they launched the Wiki Weapon Project- the effort to create and release the files for the world’s first printable handgun.

In August a month later, Indiegogo.com removed DD’s inaugural fundraising campaign from its website, citing a terms of service violation. This removal prompted a backlash in the tech community, and the Bitcoin community helped fund the Wiki Weapon. By September 2012, DD had raised enough money to start prototyping and experimentation, when industry player Stratasys (a popular manufacturer of 3D printers) scandalously revoked its lease with the company and quickly repossessed its printer. This repossession, one of the first of its kind, made world news, and the Wiki Weapon found even more support. Research and development continued. . .

#### This, is the liberator.

These components are the brainchild of Defense Distributed’s vision of open sourced weapons available for the public.

When the liberator was published, it did so as an open source software package, containing cad (computer-aided design) and .stl files that would allow you to print the individually designed components from your own home and reproduce the pistol.

This was interesting. This should be protected by both the First Amendment, since it involves expression of written information, and the Second (I’m thinking about the 2008 Heller decision) — It seems like it should be.

### Except that it wasn’t. #Justice

A letter was sent from the federal government addressed to Wilson and Defense Distributed, It was signed by Glenn Smith, chief of enforcement for the State Department’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Office of Defense Trade Control Compliance.

Smith warned Wilson that the technical specs he made publicly available may be “ITAR-controlled technical data” released “without the required prior authorization” from the State Department. ITAR stands for International Traffic in Arms Regulations, which are the U.S. government’s set of rules controlling the import and export of munitions.

In other words, by releasing CAD files allowing anyone with access to a 3D printer to make a somewhat fragile plastic pistol, Wilson may have become an illegal arms trafficker. The State Department didn’t say for sure that this information (some might call it speech) fell under its jurisdiction. But while regulators pondered the question-and four months later, at press time, they were still pondering-they demanded that Wilson “treat the above technical data as ITAR-controlled,” meaning that “all such data should be removed from public access immediately.”

So what we’re essentially seeing is that sharing code that can create guns is considered the same thing as exporting guns? That’s weird.

Waiting on the issue for a bit, Defense distributed decided they were going to take matters into their own hands and sue the federal government for the right to distribute files online pursuant to their constitutional right to free speech.

### In a very interesting (but completely unsurprising) ruling; the courts ruled against Defense Distributed.

You can read the original court documents relating to the appeal here.

“Ordinarily, of course, the protection of constitutional rights would be the highest public interest at issue in a case. That is not necessarily true here, however, because the State Department has asserted a very strong public interest in national defense and national security. Indeed, the State Department’s stated interest in preventing foreign nationals — including all manner of enemies of this country — from obtaining technical data on how to produce weapons and weapon parts is not merely tangentially related to national defense and national security; it lies squarely within that interest.” — Defense distributed V. Department of State¹

However it should be noted that there was not consensus as it was a 2–1 decision. Here is a statement from 5th Circuit, District Judge Edith Jones.

“In sum, it is not at all clear that the State Department has any concern for the First Amendment rights of the American public and press. Indeed, the State Department turns freedom of speech on its head by asserting, “The possibility that an Internet site could also be used to distribute the technical data domestically does not alter the analysis….” The Government bears the burden to show that its regulation is narrowly tailored to suit a compelling interest. It is not the public’s burden to prove their right to discuss lawful, non-classified, non-restricted technical data.” — Defense distributed V. Department of State²

#### Where are we now?

If you’re interested, the liberator’s original source files can still be found on torrent sites.

Also, Defense Distributed has an interesting Instagram page so if you’re interested you can see the research and development that they do. Edit: They have since removed the instagram page; here’s their twitter though.

##### Here are some questions I don’t have the answers to yet but am curious about learning. Jump into the comments if you’re interested.
• DD was not allowed to publish the liberator files due to the fear that foreign nationals might be able to obtain them, making DD an illegal arms trafficker. What would happen if the software in question continued to be leaked unto torrent sites due to being “hacked” by strangers that DD had no control over? Would they still be responsible for the files being shared on the internet?

• Should the GNU GPL be revised in order to remove liability for any harm caused by GPL licensed source files that are open sourced weapons?

I hope this was interesting for you, it certainly was interesting to write and learn about, so as always thank you for reading ~